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Studies on boundary of winter wheat northernmost planting in Chinese Northeast Area

Li-bai HOU, Wen Zhang and He-qin Chen

Shenyang Agricultural University, Liaoning Province, China. Houlibai@syau.edu.cn

Abstract

In recent years, the theoretical and technical problems of the northern most planting of winter wheat in China have been discussed by Shenyang agricultural university. Many aspects, such as cultivation, breeding, physiology and meteorology of winter wheat have been studied extensively also. By screening more than 4000 varieties of winter wheat, under the conditions of existing varieties and cultivation technique, suitable wheats have been found for the the northward winter wheat in the area 41.6-42.1 degree of north latitude, 120.7-123.7 degree of east longitude, 35-450m of elevation. The yield of winter wheat planted in the region could reach more than 3.75 t/ha.

Media summary

The three-dimensional ranges that suitable to the northward winter wheat have been determined as 41.6-42.1 degree of north latitude, 120.7-123.7 degree of east longitude, 35-450m of elevation.

Key words

Winter wheat; Planting boundary; Variety

Introduction

Chinese northeast areas are one of the main production regions of spring wheat. With the development of the market economy and improvement of the living standards of the people, the quality and output of the existing spring wheat varieties cannot meet the demands. At present, the major problems are decreasing wheat planting areas, the output dropping, and the demand gap of wheat expanding. At the same time, because of the low quality of wheat, the volume of stock has increased, causing difficulties in buying and selling. Therefore, it was an extremely urgent problem to improve the quality and total amount of wheat of the three provinces in the northeast of China. Though solving the above-mentioned problems need many efforts, carrying out the research and development of winter wheat northernmost planting actively was an important action.

1. General situation of geography and climate in Shenyang area

Shenyang city lies at 4146' north latitude, 12326' east longitude and 44.5m elevation. Because its climate characters show that annual average temperature 7.8 , the average temperature in the coldest month -12, rainfall concentrated in summer and drought occurred in spring. The average accumulated temperatures, the average illumination duration and precipitation amounts during the growing period of winter wheat from the last ten days in September to the last ten days of the next June, are listed in Table 1.

By the influence of " greenhouse effect ", winter temperatures were consistent with global changing appearance, tending to increase. At the same time, because the lands of Shenyang area were covered without accumulated snow for most of the winter the major restriction factor that affects winter wheat living through the winter is temperature. The results of winter wheat northernmost planting in many years show that the rate of reviving, which was influenced by the negative accumulated larger than absolute low temperature in winter, has a close relationship to the soil moisture.

Table 1 The historical average of several climate indexes during growing period of winter wheat in Shenyang area



Month

Last ten days of Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Total

Mean

Total sunlighthours (hr)

80.2

214.8

170.0

155.8

169.9

187.4

231.5

244.3

270.5

246.9

1971.3

197.1

Average sunlight
hours per day (hr/d)

8.0

6.9

5.9

5.0

5.5

6.7

7.7

8.1

8.7

8.2

70.7

7.1

Average Temperature()

17.2

9.4

0.0

-8.5

-12.0

-8.1

0.1

9.3

16.9

21.5

45.5

4.6

Over 10
Accumulated
Temperature()

720.0

291.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

90.3

279.0

523.9

645.7

1002.2

200.2

Precipitation
Amounts (mm)

82.1

44.8

19.8

10.6

7.2

8.0

12.7

39.9

56.3

88.5

369.9

37.0

2. Drawing varieties to experimental planting and screening

2.1 draw varieties to experimental planting

The demonstration and development of winter wheat northernmost planting were authorized personally by the premier of the State Council, and supported vigorously by the national foreign expert department, the Department of Agriculture and other Chinese organizations. A part of an international cooperative project during 1996-1999, we selected 1230 varieties of resistance to cold, drought and sprouting, in which Canada contributed 168 lines, America 154 , Russian agricultural science academy and a designation of Siberia 185, Ukraine 53, northwest Europe country 548 and Japan 122. At the same time, we collected from each major district varieties such that the total number is 2000. From this 31 varieties that strong resist to coldness have been selected, which showed as the Table 2.

2.2 Brief introduction of winter wheat varieties applied on production

2.2.1 MI808

The winter wheat variety of MI808 has been identified by the Liaoning variety examination committee, whose original number was SHENDONGYIN9236. The features and properties of MI808 showed that half creeping seedlings, green leaves and white leaf ears. And under the suitable sowing date, it would have strong growing potential, 3-5 tillers, 5-6 leaves before winter and 6 leaves after green turning, stem length 100cm, yellow and white seed shell, top awn, red seed, spike length 9.5cm,No. of grain per spike 32 and 1000-grain weight 37g.

MI 808 belongs to the degree of winter habit variety, which could resist to coldness strongly. And through planted 7 years continuously in Shenyang, the rate of surviving through the winter could stabilize at more than 75%, the highest up to 97%. Because MI 808 has plenty of dormancy growth awls, if meeting freeze injury, plenty of dormancy growth awls would grow up after turning green, which could guarantee enough ears numbers.

MI 808s vegetation period were 275 days, in which before winter around were 50 days, live through the winter were 120 days and from turning green to mature were about 105 days. It has developed seedling roots, strong tillering potential, neatly consistent of plants, quickly filling at later stage, no easy falling grain and resistance to rust, powdery mildew and smut. The yield of MI 808 could attain to 6t/ha when irrigated, otherwise 4.875 t/ha. MI808 could be planted at north of Anshan city and the most areas of Kaiyuan city in Liaoning province.

Table 2. The planting expression of drawing varieties with resistance to coldness in China

Varieties

Countries and areas of having been introduced varieties

Potential of resistance to coldness compare to CK

CDC Clair

Canada

>= Norstar

Zhong95-24

China

>= Norstar

98-P69

China

>= Norstar

98-P74

China

>= Norstar

Extrem

Austrian

>= Norstar

OAC Ariss

Canada

>= Norstar

97-P288

China

>= Norstar

Hanover

Canada

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Fundulea

Canada

>= Mirolorfskaya808

AC Readymade

Canada

>= Mirolorfskaya808

AC Ron

Canada

>= Mirolorfskaya808

CDC Kestrel

Canada

>= Mirolorfskaya808

CWR10

Canada

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Mirolorfskaya56

Ukraine

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Mirolorfskaya63

Ukraine

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Mirolorfskaya34

Ukraine

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Miliji

Ukraine

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Karait

Austrian

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Agron

Austrian

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Mirolorfskaya28

Ukraine

>= Mirolorfskaya808

Zhong96-9

China

>= jingdong1

Zhong921

China

>= jingdong1

Zhong624

China

>= jingdong1

Zhong97-76

China

>= jingdong1

Zhong96-14

China

>= jingdong1

Zhong97-40

China

>= jingdong1

Zhong97-28

China

>= jingdong1

Zhong97-37

China

>= jingdong1

SD92107

USA

>= Mirolorfskaya808

SD94224

USA

>= Mirolorfskaya808

SD89119

USA

>= Mirolorfskaya808

2.2.2 JINGDONG no.1

The winter wheat variety of JINGDONG no.1 has been identified by the Liaoning variety examination committee also, original number SHENDONGYIN9226.The features and properties of JINGDONG NO. 1 show ed that half creeping seedlings, green leaves and white leaf ears, without beard, the rate of surviving through the winter up to 90%, stem length 80cm, spike length 8.6cm, grain number of per spike 42-44, 1000-grain weight 37g ,red seed. JINGDONG NO. 1′s vegetation period were 265 days. It has developed seedling roots, strong resistance to drought, neatly consistent of plant and resistance to rust, powdery mildew and smut. The yield of JINGDONG NO. 1 could attain to 5.800t if irrigation, otherwise was 4.500 t/ha. Because JINGDONG NO. 1 was more early maturing, so it could be planted at north of Gai county and the plain areas of Shenyang city in Liaoning province.

2.3 Agricultural climate boundary and region Partition of winter wheat northernmost planting in Liaoning province

2.3.1 The index of accumulated temperatures before winter

According to the results of experiments of separating sowing dates during 1993-1996, the relationship of yield and accumulated temperature before winter was parabolic curve, which was Y=-0.0031x2 + 3.3234 x-570.0353.

MI808 originated in the Ukraine, whose accumulated temperatures before winter was 518.9℃d, so the interval value of accumulated temperature was 400-500℃d creditable. According to 40 years of meteorological information near Shenyang, the time of temperature passing to 15-17℃ was stably equivalent to 20th Sep..

2.3.2 Index of resistance to coldness in winter

From last ten-days of Nov and Feb, negative accumulated temperature was - 693-961.9, and if negative accumulated temperature was below - 800.d, it would be laid without accumulated snow; but once exceeding, it would have a layer of accumulated snow. The negative accumulated temperature of Tieling city was -692.8- -858.8 during 6 years, but Qingyuan city has reached to - 1230d. According to the above results, MI808 could break through the limit of 500-700d before winter , grow up during 400-500d, break through the lowest temperature of - 25, and bear - 28.

3. Several problems should be noticed in winter wheat northernmost planting

3.1To carry out winter wheat northernmost planting according to the local naturally resource conditions and production characteristics

3.1.1 Among many ambient conditions of influencing the winter wheat northernmost planting, winter temperatures , precipitation amounts and snow were the main restriction factors. For present varieties and cultural technical conditions, the suitable areas should have the January average temperature about - 11 ℃ and absolutely minimum temperature - 28, if covered by steady thickness of accumulated snow more than 10 cm, the absolutely minimum temperature could reach - 38.

3.1.2 In order to attain high yield of winter wheat, the farming lands must be paid attention to. At the same time, we should apply fertilizers to raise the level of soil fertility. In order to meet the demands of wheat growth and development, wheat field soil must be loose, ventilate and preserve the heat, retain water and fertilizer and be resistant to coldness and drought through stabilized fertility.

3.1.3 Enlarge irrigated lands and improve facilities to drain flooded fields with great efforts. The low precipitation amounts could not satisfy the needs of winter wheat for moisture in the northern China

3.2To choose suitable varieties according to the areas ecological characteristic.

3.2.1 Principles of choosing suitable varieties should be grasped as following. One is according to the local climate conditions especially temperature. Two is according to the production level. The varieties of resistance to drought should be planted on lands without irrigation. The lands with more thick earth-layer and higher altitudes should be planted with the varieties that are resistant to drought and enduring fertility

If the high altidude regions have good fertility and water availability, the varieties with higher yield potential should be selected that respond to fertilizer without lodging. Thirdly, according to the different farming system. For example in the intercropping forms of corn and wheat, the varieties of winter wheat not only have the characteristics of latterly -sowing and early-maturing to shorten the cooperative growing period of corn and wheat, but also have the characteristics of shorter plant height, compact plant-type, strong border effect etc to raise the yield. Fourthly, is according to the local biotic stresses. Varieties resistant to dry wind damage and fungal infection should be chosen in Liaoning province, but Heilongjiang province and other places should still select the varieties resistant to rust and scab. Finally, the variety quality of winter wheat should not be neglected.

3.2.2To find suitable agronomic practices for selected varieties. In order to satisfy the environmental demands, the different varieties should adopt the corresponding cultivation technology. Choose sowing dates according to the resistance to coldness of varieties. Choose planting densities that account for the tillering and the ears percent properties. Three is to determine the sowing amount according to whether sturdy or slender plant-stem and loose or close plant-type. Fourthly, select the time of applying fertilizer according to maturity period of varieties.

It was well known that spikes, grain number per ear and grain weight were compose the yield structure. And proportion that spikes, grain number per ear and grain weight took in actual output were 47.5%, 29.3% and 23.2%. Increasing the grain number per ear was the first activity in the elementary stage of winter wheat northernmost planting. Under high yield conditions, in order to raise yield, the technology should be changed from increasing grain number to raising the grain weight of ear of grain, which was grain number to be multiplied by grain weight

Conclusion

The basic theories and technologies of the northward winter wheat have been studied by Shenyang agricultural university since 1991. The three-dimensional ranges that suitable to the northward winter wheat have determined, which was 41.6-42.1 degree of north latitude, 120.7-123.7 degree of east longitude, 35-450m of elevation. For a few years, some key technological problems, such as the index of strong sprouting, planting forms, the management of promoting and controlling the growth of sprout, the methods of screening varieties with resistance to coldness have been solved. At the same time, the requirements of varieties in regions of winter wheat northernmost planting have been proposed also. Under the circumstance of present varieties and production conditions, the high yield cultivation theories and techniques of surviving winter safely, resistance to drought, shortening stems, maturing early have been put forward, which offers the theoretical foundation for further development of winter wheat northernmost planting.

References

Li-bai HOU (1999).Advancec on Studies of Winter Wheat’s Northing in Liaoning Province.Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 30(6):567-571

He-qin CHEN Li-bai HOU (1999).Present Situation and Progress on Cropping Pattern of Wheat in Liaoning Province.Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 30(6):572-575

Zhi-xin HAO (1999).A Study on the Agricultural Climatic Indices for Planting Winter Wheat in Liaoning P Rrovince.Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 30(6):598-601

Wen ZHANG, Li-bai HOU (1999).Relationship of Yield, with Fertilizing Rate, Seeding Amount and Planting Date of Winter Wheat after Northing.Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 30(6):606-608

Ping WANG (1998). The Preliminary research of winter wheat planting in Changchun. Journal of Triticeae crops, 55-57

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