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Cross-Incompatible Groups and Genetic Variation by RAPD of Korean Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas, (L.) Lam.] Varieties

Young-Sup Ahn1, Yeon-Sang Song1, Byeong-Choon Jeong1 and Kyung-Soo Min2

1 Mokpo Expt., Stn., National Institute of Crop Science, Muan, Jeonnam, 534-833, Korea www.rda,go,kr Email ysahn21c@rda.go.kr
2
College of Agriculture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 500-757, Korea www.chonnam.ac.kr Email ksmin@chonnam.ac.kr

Abstract

Korean sweetpotato varieties were examined for their flowering response, and self- and cross-incompatibility, and RAPD analysis was tried to assess genetic variation in cross-incompatible groups. Six cross-incompatible groups were revealed from complete diallel crosses with thirty three Korean Ipomoea batatas varieties. The standard variety for classification of cross-incompatible S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 group was determined on the basis of flowering, self- and cross-incompatibility. From the results of reciprocal crosses with standard varieties, 8 varieties including Jinhongmi were classified as cross-incompatible S1 group, 12 varieties including Mokpo #39 as S2 group, and etc. Saengmi was determined as a variety of complex cross-incompatible S2S1m group, Hwangmi as one of unidirectional cross-incompatible S2m group, Mokpo #32 and Mokpo #34 as those of unidirectional cross-incompatible S3f group. Further studies with more primers were needed for classification of cross-incompatible groups by RAPD analysis.

Media summary

Thirty one Korean sweetpotato varieties were classified in six cross-incompatible groups. For rapid interpretation of self- and cross-compatibility, classification of genetic variation by RAPD etc. was needed.

Key Words

Sweetpotato, Incompatibility, Sterility, Breeding, RAPD, Crop

Introduction

Sweetpotato was known as self-incompatibility crop (Stout 1924), but some varieties were reported as self-compatibility (Togari 1942, Fujise 1964, Martin 1968, Tarumoto et al. 1992). Also, Cross-incompatibility was existed from crosses among varieties (Stout 1924, 1926). Cross-sterile groups were classified by complete diallel crosses among varieties (Ando et al. 1963, Hernandez and Miller 1963, Fujise 1964, Komaki and Chishiki 1982, Ahn et al. 2002). This type of classification method was resulted in much labor, practice, misinterpretation, and etc. Genetic classifications by RAPD analysis were tried for rapid interpretation of cross-incompatibility among varieties.

Methods

Thirty three Korean sweetpotato varieties were examined for their flowering responses, and self- compatibilities. These varieties were crossed reciprocally as complete diallel cross for examination of cross-incompatibility. For randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, 15 selected primers were used on forty eight varieties.

Results

From complete diallel crosses with thirty three Korean I. batatas varieties, the results were as follows: eight varieties including Sinhwangmi were reciprocally cross-incompatible; twelve varieties including Hongmi were reciprocally or unidirectionally incompatible; three varieties such as Mokpo #31, Mokpo #32, and Mokpo #34 were reciprocally or unidirectionally incompatible; three varieties such as Mokpo #36, Younmi, and Mokgye 1 were reciprocally incompatible; three varieties such as Gunmi, Yulmi, and Zami were reciprocally incompatible; two varieties such as Eunmi and Chinmi were reciprocally incompatible; with one another in each group. Meanwhile, the other two varieties such as Shinmi and Mokgye #3 were cross-compatible with all the other varieties.

According to the flowering response, self- and cross-incompatibility, Korean standard varieties for determining cross incompatible groups were decided as follows: Jinhongmi for cross-incompatible S1 group, Mokpo #39 for cross- incompatible S2 group, Mokpo #31 for cross-incompatible S3 group, Mokpo #36 for cross-incompatible S4 group, Gunmi for cross-incompatible S5 group, and Eunmi for cross-incompatible S6 group.

The varieties, for which cross-incompatible group has not been determined, were classified as S0 group.

From the results of reciprocal crosses of Korean standard varieties for determining cross-incompatible groups with the other Korean varieties, Jinhongmi, Sinchunmi, Mokpo #28, Mokpo #37, Mokpo #41, Jeungmi, Shinyulmi and Sinhwangmi were determined as cross-incompatible S1 group; Mokpo 39, Mokpo 40, Hongmi, Seonmi, Wonmi, Poongmi, Mokgye #2, Borami, Suwon #147 and Mokpo #38 as S2 group; Mokpo #31 as S3 group; Mokpo #36, Younmi and Mokgye #1 as S4 group; Gunmi, Yulmi and Zami as S5 group; Eunmi and Chinmi as S6 group; and Shinmi and Mokgye #1 as S0 group. Saengmi was determined as a variety of complex cross-incompatible S2S1m group, Hwangmi as one of unidirectional cross-incompatible S2m group, Mokpo #32 and Mokpo #34 as those of unidirectional cross-incompatible S3f group.

From RAPD analysis, fifteen primers among 127 primers were selected from the clear, reproducible, and polymorphic banding profile.Forty eight varieties were screened for using 15 selected RAPD primers.With 15 arbitrary 10 or 12-mer primers, 169 discrete fragments of DNA were amplified with an average of 11.2 DNA fragments per primer.Total of 129 DNA fragments was polymorphic with average 8.6 polymorphic bands per primers.Fragment sizes ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 kb with a majority between 0.5 to 2.0 kb. Forty eight varieties were classified into three large groups and were divided into nine sub-groups. These groups were not shown the perfect linkage among self- and cross incompatible characters. But it was considered as a possibility of further studies with more primers for classification of cross-incompatible groups.

Table1. Standard varieties for determining cross-incompatible groups of Ipomoea batatas in Korea.

Cross-incompatible group

Standard variety

Self-incompatibilityy)

Flowering degreez)

S1

Jinhongmi

5~7

S2

Mokpo 39

9

S3

Mokpo 31

7~9

S4

Mokpo 36

3~7

S5

Gunmi

3~5

S6

Eunmi

-+

7~9

S0

Varieties of which incompatible group has not been determined

y : - :〈1.0% pollen germination on stigma and no pollen tube penetrated into style,
-+ : 〉1.1% pollen germination on stigma and 〈0.4 pollen tube penetrated into style.
Z : Degree of flowering expressed by scores in which 0 : none, 1 : sparse, 5 : moderate, and 9 : profuse

Table 2. Cross-incompatible groups of Korean Ipomoea batatas varieties.

Variety

Cross-incompatible group

Jinhongmi, Sinchunmi, Jeungmi, Shinyulmi, Sinhwangmi, Mokpo 28, Singeonmi, Mokpo 41

S1

Hongmi, Seonmi, Wonmi, Poongmi, Borami, Suwon 147, Sinjami, Mokpo 39, Mokpo 40

S2

Hwangmi

S2m

Saengmi

S2S1m

Mokpo 31

S3

Mokpo 32, Mokpo 34

S3f

Younmi, Mokpo 36, Mokpo 42

S4

Gunmi, Yulmi, Zami

S5

Eunmi, Chinmi

S6

Shinmi, Mokgye 3

S0

Table 3. List of 15 selected random primers used in this experiment.

No.

Primer

Sequence ('5→'3)

No.

Primer

Sequence ('5→'3)

1

A08

GCC CCG TTA GCA

9

A67

CCT GAG GTA GCT

2

A25

CTC AGC GAT ACG

10

A69

TGG TAC GGT ATA

3

A29

GGT TCG GGA ATG

11

A71

ACT CTT CTA CAA

4

A42

TCC AAG CTA CCA

12

A89

GAC GCC TAT TAT

5

A47

GAG GTG ATA TTA

13

SP06

CCG TGA CTC A

6

A48

TAC CCT CAA GCT

14

SP16

GGC ACT GAG G

7

A50

CCT TTC CGA CGA

15

SP20

GGC ACT GAG G

8

A61

GAC TGC TAT ACA

     

Figure 1. Electrophoretic patterns of PCR-amplified DNA products from genomic DNAs for 48 sweetpotato accessions. Primer : A69 (5'- TGG TAC GGT ATA -3')

Figure 2. Dendrogram of 48 sweetpotato varieties by cluster analysis based on polymorphic RAPD markers.

Conclusion

Some Korean sweetpotato varieties were classified as 6 cross-incompatible groups, and tried by RAPD analysis. These groupings on self- and cross-incompatibility of sweetpotato varieties and trials by RAPD, RFLP, and some other methods are continuously needed in future for the efficient cross breeding and basic information to overcome incompatibility characteristics.

References

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