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Implementing ‘Local Better Practices” Technique to enhance the pig and chicken production system in Baybay, Leyte

Alberto A. Taveros a Elenita A. Espinosaa Richard Clark Janiceb Timmsb Simon More c

a Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine , Visayas State College of Agriculture, Baybay, Leyte, 6521-A, Philippines
b Rural Extension Centre, The University of Queensland, Gatton College, Lawes, QLD 4343
c The University of Queensland, Gatton College, Lawes, QLD 4343


The Local Better Practices (LBP) technique is being implemented in Baybay, Leyte from June 2000 to July 2003 to enhance the pig and chicken production system of the Baybay farmers. The prime focus of the technique is to find out what makes a real difference to performance of a system.

The Current practices, issues, needs, problems, opportunities and constraints on pig and chicken production system in Baybay, Leyte were determined and/or identified in Step 1-Situation using this technique. Basically, this involves the analysis of actual farming situation, determination of impact of these current practices on farmers’ livelihood, and eventual identification of opportunities for action.

Opportunities with high impact and influence for improvement of pig production system were those which concerned on capital sourcing, feeds, acquisition of quality breeds, good marketing strategy, waste management and vaccination.

Group Action-Planning of Kilim farmers focussed on “Complete housing materials or facilities” while “Construction of concrete and dependable pig house” and “ Trainings” for Hipusngo and Gubang farmers, respectively.

Performance assessment of individual action design indicated that generally farmers were able to accomplish their action designs.


Most traditional approaches to identifying opportunities for change were proven unsuccessful and unhelpful in dealing with current problems and constraints thus preventing change at the operational level. A new technique called ‘Local Best Practices’ (LBP) enables people to initiate a process of change by clearly describing their current situation in terms of: (i) the practices they currently do well (ii) problems, solutions, constraints and opportunities for making a difference in the context of their current daily commitments (iii) their needs to take next step in a process of change which will make a real difference to their current performance (Clark et al, 2000).

The primary aim of the project is to facilitate and support farmer network, and in the planning, organizing and instituting of CI and I of the LBP process. It will provide overall facilitation in all farmer meetings and responsible in identifying resources for the meetings. Further the project aims to have an organized plan and record of activities of meetings and a collaborative work with other projects and to enhanced farmer's ability to make critical decision concerning pig and chicken production system and farmers practicing the CI & I.


The project will focus on the LPB technique of the CI & I process. All meetings will be done using the six steps of the ‘Local Best Practices’.

Step 1 — Situation Analysis

This step describe the current practices, performance, issues, needs, problems, opportunities and constraints of pig and chicken production system.

Step 2 — Impact Analysis

This step was conducted to generate ideas and/or opportunities from individual farmers about what will make a real difference in order to achieve tangible benefits using the Impact and Influence Technique. Each opportunities generated was assessed and/or evaluated for both impact and personal influence.

Step 3 — Action Design

Based from the opportunities developed and subjected for Impact-influence analysis in step 2, the farmers selected opportunities for action and improvement, which they believe they have an influence to initiate an action.

Step 4 — Action

Implementation of the plans made from Step 3 commenced in this step. This step tries to answer questions that can help focus thinking and discussions like: What specific actions/practices am I implementing? Am I recording if the action/practices are having impact? A Performance Checks Technique shall be used to indicate whether the farmer's commitment in taking action is high, medium or low.

Step 5 — Performance Assessment

The purpose of parformance assessment is to describe the effects of actions. It employs/engages the Repetitive Why Technique.This technique enables the farmers to get closer to the cause of the symptoms-the ‘problem-behind-the problem’. This also leads to the generation of a richer perspective of possibilities, solutions and ideas.

Step 6 — Synthesis and Creation

This step starts with the generation of new ideas and questions to the development and adaptation of new knowledge, practices and processes. It uses the Observations, Questions, Ideas and Opportunities Technique.

Results and discussion

Formation of farmer groups

Three (3) farmer teams with 10-12 farmers mostly smallholder pig and chicken raisers were chosen as participants of the study. The teams were formed in collaboration with the Baybay Local Government Unit (LGU) through Department of Agriculture (DA). Selection of the members were based on the criteria previously made by the research team.

Situation analysis

The most common critical success factors identified for pig production are found in Table 1. For pigs, combination of commercial feeds and other indigenous feedstuffs is the common practice in terms of feeding. Majority of the farmers have pig pens, ranging from concrete to semi-concrete. Most of the houses have no specific measurement and/or design. It also lacks the needed facilities such as drainage, septic tank and farrowing pens. Hybrid with bloodlines of Landrace, Dalland, Pietrain, or Duroc is the most common breeds raised and hog cholera is the most common disease that infects almost all age level of pigs.

Capital is the most important for farmers as this is usually the common constraint in their pig-raising. No proper marketing systems for pigs hence, marketing of products is through middlemen which oftentimes dictates or controls the price.

Generally farmer raise native chickens which are mostly for home consumption, thus of lesser value than pigs. Chickens have no housing and are fed with milled rice, kitchen leftovers, grated coconut or feed leftover by pigs. New Castle Disease (NCD) and fowl cholera are the most common diseases, which also causes high attrition rates in chickens.

Table 1. Current situation of pig production system in Baybay








Pure commercial feeds, mixture of commercial and local feeds, rice bran/corn bran, and cooked root crops and kitchen refuse.


Ranged from concrete to semi-concrete
No specific measurement and no proper facilities

Health and Management

Health problems are referred to DA technician
Vaccination is not usually practiced
Care and management was learned from seminars given by feed companies and other government agencies, from brochures and leaflets provided by feed manufacturers.

Experience of raising

Knowledge and experience was gained thru raising, attending seminars, home study, and from neighbors


Landrace, Duroc, Pietrain, Large White, Dalland

Landrace, Duroc, Pietrain, Large White, Dalland

Mixed breeds, native


through middlemen


Loan from cooperative,Sales from previous animals,Personal

Record Keeping

Do not practice

Waste disposal

Fertilizer for plants

Table 2. Current situation of chicken production system in Baybay








Combination of home mixed feeds, rice bran, commercial feeds,and other indigenous feedstuffs such as termites, and grated coconuts.


Made up of light materials such as nipa and bamboo; others are scavenging




No vaccinations




Household consumption sometimes sold to friends/neighbors at lower price.

Waste managment

Fertilizer for plants/crops

Impact Analysis

The opportunities for improvement of pig production systems developed by Kilim, Hipusngo and Gubang farmers are shown in Table 3. For Kilim, seventeen (17) opportunities were identified while 19 and 13 for Hipusngo and Gubang, respectively

Figure 1 indicated that all the opportunities identified have high impact and influence for the Kilim farmers. The same was also observed on opportunities developed by Hipusngo farmers for pigs (Fig. 2). On the other hand, it is shown that the opportunities for pig have high impact for Gubang but they have lesser capacity to do it (Fig. 3). Opportunities concerning trainings came out the main concern of Gubang farmers.

Table 3. Impact and Influence analysis result on pig production of Kilim, Hipusngo, and Gubang farmer teams





Use of non-commercial feeds.

23662646346 = 40 (4.4)

36362356346 = 47 (4.3)

Use of commercial feeds.

54653435665 = 44(. 4.7)

54643644665 = 53 (4.8)

Appropriate feeds all types/ages of pig.

55655256554 = 53(4.8)

55665535544 = 53 (4.8)

Type of vaccine for different types of diseases.

44466556553 = 53( 5.2)

44466356563 = 52 (4.7)

Training how to diagnose diseases and its treatment.

66666456455 = 59(5.4)

56666456265 = 57( 5.2)

Availability of veterinary services.

56666455354 = 55(5.5)

56666545354 = 57 (5.5)

Exact measurement of pens.

66445146443 = 47(4.3)

66455256453 = 51 (4.6)

Complete housing materials and facilities.

56666655566 = 62(5.6)

46666655566 = 63 (5.5)

Good breed or source of pigs.

66656445453 = 54(4.9)

46656555453 = 61(4.9)

Training how to sow, boar, and piglet.

62666656456 = 52(5.3)

42666656366 = 56(5.1)

Formation of association.

53535552343 = 40(3.9)

43545632254 = 43(3.8)

Source of medicine, vitamins, and feeds.

66645446256 = 54(4.9)

56645546466 = 57(5.2)

Weight estimation.

63555345553 = 49(4.5)

6355443553 = 43(4.8)

Training on swine management.

62666656246 = 55(5.5)

52666656256 = 55(5.5)

Reduce attrition rate.

46554454444 = 49(4.5)

26554555434 = 48(4.4)

Waste management.

43665335546 = 50(4.5)

43665456536 = 50(4.8)

Farmers' attitude.

43556663455 = 52(4.7)

43565356355 = 50(4.5)


Source of capital for feeds and pigs

6666666666356 = 68(5.2)

456654335245 = 52(4.0)

Formation of association and a store for feeds and medicines

666665555523 = 60(4.6)

436543335443 = 47(3.6)

Training how to select good breeds of pigs

666666555514 = 55(4.2)

366453351353 = 47(3.6)

Availability of technical and veterinary services

656666555626 = 64(4.9)

543644336356 = 52(4.0)

Source of breeds of chicken and pig.

666666653554 = 64(4.9)

534344543455 = 49(3.7)

Unadulterated feeds.

666666666665 = 71(5.4)

666655555444 = 61(4.6)

Exact time to bath the pigs.

666666555443 = 62(4.7)

666655554433 = 58(4.4)

Source of water

666666665552 = 65(5.0)

555556663325 = 56(4.3)

Amount of feed, appropriate time to feed, and systems offeeding

565464666666 = 66(5.1)

656446455565 = 71(5.4)

Maintain cleanliness and use of effective disinfectants.

6646454666 = 53(5.3)

4635565446 = 48(4.8)

Facilities that prevents occurrence of disease.

66546666345 = 57(4.7)

55456554633 = 51(4.2)

Appropriate location pig and chicken house

3555456555 = 48(4.8)

5445544365 = 45(4.5)

Giving of green supplements

463656666655 = 58(4.8)

642556665464 = 59(4.9)

Training on management sows, piglets and fatteners.

66665566666 = 64(5.8)

55345556655 = 54(4.9)

Farrowing crate for newly

666655555665 = 66(5.5)

645544445465 = 56(4.6)

Concrete and dependable pens.

666566526 = 48(5.3)

656556625 = 46(5.1)

Complete facilities for pig house.

645655454356 = 58(4.8)

666454334544 = 54(4.5)

Acquiring of own weighing scales

366656526666 = 63(5.2)

655665446524 = 58(4.8)

Utilization of pig wastes as fertilizers to plants.

666666655534 = 64(5.3)

566225555665 = 58(4.8)


Training how to recognize different diseases.

655665666665 = 68(5.66)

244402355222 = 35(2.91)

Availability of veterinary services.

66646664666 = 62(5.63)

402001616334 = 30(2.50)

Specific treatment for different diseases.

666666555664 = 67(5.58)

132023524261 = 31(2.58)

Good breeds of pigs to raise..

65556465666 = 60(5.40)

513366436335 = 48(4.00)

Source of capital for feeds and biologics.

656456445456 = 60(5.00)

11212323436611 = 29(2.41)

Exact methods of disposing pigs.

6456436466 = 50(5.00)

2312264621 = 29(2.99)

Site and location of pig pen.

55655564656 = 58(5.27)

21256155322 = 34(3.09)

Determine the exact feeding management.

656556456456 = 73(6.08)

232232245621 = 34(2.83)

Construction of complete pen facilities.

6554646466 = 52(5.20)

415442454224 = 413.41)

Good breed of boars.

6466666666 = 58(5.80)

2625441235445 = 43(3.58)


666566666665 = 70(5.83)

3325435544532 = 46(3.83)

Training on how to treat diseases.

665655666465 = 66(5.50)

562233245244 = 42(3.50)

Record keeping.

65566666566 = 63(5.72)

62616364441= 43(3.90)

Figure 1. Graphical representation of opportunities for pig of KFT

Figure 2. Graphical representation of opportunities for pig of HFT

Figure 3. Graphical representation of opportunities for pig of GFT

Action designs

The group action design developed by Kilim, Hipusngo, and Gubang farmers are shown in Tables 6, 7, and 8, respectively. For KFT, Complete housing materials and facilities was the focus with seven (7) Critical Success Factors (CSF. For HFT, group focus was Construction of concrete and dependable pig house, and for GFT, Trainings with three (3) CSFs namelywas the identified focus.

Table 6. Group action plan of KFT with focus on Complete housing materials or facilities.




Resources needed

Feeder & drinker

  • Put up nipple drinker
  • Construct elevated feeder
  • Available drinker
  • No more diarrhea for piglets.
  • Water pipe, cement, steel bars/plate, sand

Things needed in cleaning

  • Prepare the things and cleaning materials
  • Clean pen.
  • Pigs are no longer susceptible to diseases.
  • Hose, pail, brush, dust pan


  • Make water well for emergency use.
  • Available water.
  • Clean Piglets and surroundings areas.
  • Pressure pump, shovel, pail, rope, cement, sand & gravel, and money.

Septic Tank

  • Determine the appropriate design.
  • Determine the recommended measurement and area..
  • No more foul odor, good relation with neighbors
  • Cement, sand & gravel, steel bars.

Farrowing Pen

  • Determine the recommended measurement.
  • Reduced piglet mortality
  • Cement, sand & gravel, steel bars
  • Consultant on pen measurement.


  • Look for appropriate area inside the pen
  • Piglets are safe.
  • Cartoon, steelbars, bamboo, wood, pails.


  • Permanent light.
  • Prepare emergency light in case of blackout.
  • Easy feeding during night time.
  • Pigs are free to move around.
  • Electric wire, bulb
  • Gasoline, lamp

Table 7. Group action plan of Hipusngo farmer group with focus on construction of concrete and dependable pig house




Resources needed


  • List and canvass prices of materials.
  • Procurement and preparation of materials
  • Procured the Materials
  • Materials needed completed
  • Lumber, steelbars, GI sheets/nipa shingles, sand and carpentry materials

Design and measurement

  • Consult engineer or animal expert/scientist
  • Proper/recommended design and measurement applied
  • Engineer and /or animal expert/scientist, carpenter, sketch, building permit, money

Cost of materials

  • Estimate of expenses
  • List of actual expenses
  • Money


  • Loan from lending agency for capital
  • Loan approved and granted
  • Pig house constructed
  • Lending agency


  • Hire carpenter.
  • Pig house constructed
  • Money for labor fee

Table 8. Group action plan of Gubang farmer group with focus on training.

Critical Success Factors

Key Practices

Key Practice Indicator

Resources needed

Interest of farmer

  • Convince other farmers
  • Plenty of participants
  • Communication skills


  • Request a resource person
  • Available resource person
  • Communication skills


  • To be prepared by LLIP

Performance assessment on individual action designs:





To maintain good health and sanitation
To utilise the waste of pigs

Sourcing supply of feeds & medicine

100% accomplished

100% accomplished.
Biodigester was constructed
100% accomplished.
Available store for feeds and medicines is found


Training on pig diseases and breeds

100% accomplished.


To renovate the pigpen and its facilities

30% accomplished. Still on the planning stage due to limited budget.


Pig waste management

Make a farrowing pen

Changed her plan constructing a septic tank to biodigester.
80% accomplished. A farrowing pen made of bamboo was constructed temporarily.


Training on pig management
To organize an association

100% accomplished.
Not yet accomplished. Other members were not yet decided on this plan.


Training on different vaccines & diseases.
Sourcing supply of feeds and medicine

100% accomplished.

100% accomplished.


Make separation pen for piglets

100% accomplished.


Pig waste management

To provide other pigpen facilities

Not accomplished. Biodigester is yet to be installed.
100% accomplished.


Complete pigpen facilities

100% accomplished.


Make individual pens for sows
Make drainage
Water supply

100% accomplished.
100% accomplished.
100% accomplished.



Pigpen expansion

75% accomplished. Resources used are from piglets sales. No laborer hired, husband does all the labor


Training on pig management

100% accomplished.


To form a cooperative

Not implemented, but decided to change it into sow management which was 100% accomplished


Pigpen expansion

50% accomplished.
Completed first the materials needed.


Regular veterinary services

100% accomplished.


Training on pig management
Pigpen expansion

100% accomplished.


Water connection to water district

100% accomplished.


Raise hybrid pigs

Not implemented yet. Loan application for capital is still on process.


Construct concrete and dependable pigpen

75% accomplished. Lack of resources


Renovation of pigpen

100% accomplished.


Training o pig management, disease and housing

100% accomplished.



Reason: no time plenty of children



Construction of additional pen facilities

Construction of pen for chickens

Training on castration

100% accomplished. Made feeding trough and was able to buy a water hose.
Unaccomplished. Construction of pen will follow if the renovation of kitchen is done. Scraps of materials from said kitchen will be used in the chicken pen.
100% accomplished.


Construction, repair and extension of pigpen
Injection of iron

100% accomplished.

100% accomplished.


Construction, repair and extension of pigpen
Recording of all expenses incurred
Training on castration

100% accomplished.

100% accomplished.

100% accomplished


Construction of chicken pen

20% accomplished. The round timbers intended for this purpose were used in repairing the toilet.


Injection of iron

100% accomplished.


Construction of additional pen facilities

10% accomplished.


Construction, repair and extension of pigpen

100% accomplished.


No accomplishment After she has sold all her pigs, anymore pigs or chicken because she is already old and busy attending her elderly in-law


After the completion of the first cycle of the LBP steps, it can be concluded that the Continuous and innovation process through the LBP technique is a promising tool to explore for the enhancement of the general wellbeing of the smallholder families. There was an apparent transition in farmer's perception in terms of pig and chicken production systems.


  1. Clark, R. and J. Timms (2000) Enabling & Achieving Continuous Improvement & Innovation in THE BETTER PRACTICES PROCESS. Focussed Action for Impact on Performance. The Rural Extension Centre, Gatton

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