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Farm Sourced Timber: the Restructuring of the Timber Industry in Kenya – Opportunities and Challenges.

Christine Holding1, Paul Njuguna2 & Catherine Gatundu3

1 Research Fellow, Tree Domestication Programme ICRAF, Nairobi, and Department of Forest Management & Products - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden. Email:
Agroforestry Officer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development,Nairobi, Kenya.
Project Officer, Forest Action Network, and currently (until July 2002) studying for an MSc in Environmental Sciences at the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Email: or


Farmers may be keen to grow timber trees for savings (Chambers & Leach, 1989) if they have no superior strategy for savings, while rejecting growing of trees for cash income if they already have a successful strategy for earning cash income from off-farm labour or crops (Warner, 1995). However, with the decline in commodity prices of farmers principal cash crops e.g. coffee, farmers are increasingly viewing timber as an active cash generating farm enterprise. This trend is further spurred by the decline in plantation and forest cover in tropical countries, opening opportunities for greater involvement of the small holder sector in timber production. Small scale farmers, when considering timber as an enterprise, seek for a multipurpose tree that will complement other enterprises on the farm, yet yield timber as a final product, e.g. Cordia africana - fodder and timber; Grevillea robusta, fuelwood and timber (Michael Gitonga, Pers com. 2001).

There are several generic issues arising from this shift to small holder growing and these include:

Quality: how to match market demand with what is feasible and possible to produce on farm, given farmers multiple objectives;

  • Farmers' organizations/joint ventures: how farmers who are interested, can form groups to facilitate marketing, transportation and accessing of appropriate technical advice;
  • Potential contribution of timber to farmers' financial portfolio: What potential role can timber play as a cash enterprise in a farmer’s range of enterprise options? In what ways can timber enhance and complement existing enterprises on farm?;
  • Environmental concerns: the richness of diversity of species; watershed functions; niche, above and below ground interaction of trees on farm, and in the landscape; larger national and global environmental concerns.

Recognizing the emerging dynamic in the timber industry, the Meru timber marketing programme was initiated in 1999. This programme implemented by Forest Action Network, Ministry of Agriculture and ICRAF combines research, extension and advocacy activities to address emerging issues in the sector. Interlinked activities include: the recording radio programmes and facilitating workshops to discuss forest policy as it relates to effects farm produced trees; timber felling and movement permits; training farmers in tree valuation and pricing, piloting the formation of farmers timber marketing groups, farmer-led market analysis and enterprise development, and improved market orientated silvicultural tree practices; documenting and analyzing the structure of timber markets linked to farms, identifying the range of potential market niches for farmers and developing a range of timber production protocols that would contribute to the financial objectives and enterprise portfolio of farmers in coffee based systems.

The first section of the paper describes the current status of the forest sector in Kenya and introduces the study area. Subsequent sections present a market chain schematic for timber from farms and preliminary findings from a timber business census conducted in June this year. Sustainable production of timber from farms and challenges to extension are discussed in the latter sections of the paper.

The forest sector

The total area of Kenya's closed canopy indigenous forest is 1.24 million ha. (Wass, 1995). The best estimates of plantation cover date form the 1991 inventory: 165.000ha. This estimate does not include private plantations. The area of gazetted forest cover, is therefore barely 2.5 % of the country. These gazetted forest areas are under continuous threat of forest excisions for uses including: agriculture(17%), settlement (35%), and regazetted as national park (35%) (Wass, 1995). The speed of excision is accelerating. In a survey of 63.3 % of the forest estate conducted in 1999 it was found that 50,000ha in the west of the Rift Valley, and 5,700 hectare in the east of the Rift Valley had either been excised or proposed for excision in the last five years. In addition it was found that the general state of management in the plantation sector was low, with none of the forest blocks visited having a management plan (Njuguna et al. 1999).

There is however a strong tradition of agroforestry in the country, with the planting and retention of a variety of multipurpose trees on farms. Biomass inventories reveal regular density of 7.5m3 per ha in the central agricultural areas of the country; with this rising to 17.07m3 per ha, in mixed stand agroforestry systems in a matter of years with extension support in the provision of seeds, silvicultural advice etc. (Njuguna, Holding & Munyasya, 2000).

Bearing the above context in mind, please refer Tables 1 and 2 projecting demand and supply of wood products as compiled in the Kenya Forest Master Plan (KFMP 1994).

According to KFMP estimates, if the then current trends continued, then by the year 2010, the majority of timber and poles would be coming from the farm estate. The Masterplan proposed a comprehensive set of measures to facilitate improved management of the forest estate. This included indications such as:

"Closer linkages between industry and farm tree growers that could provide the rural population with increased earnings from sales of wood and other industrial raw material and from the various steps in tree-product harvesting, transport and processing" (KFMP 1994).

However, the revised forest bill that would underpin the raised efficiency of the sector has yet to be passed and most of the Masterplan recommendations have yet to be implemented. The current scenarios as described in the Masterplan have actually accelerated (White, 1997), and in late 1999 a temporary ban on logging in the plantations and forest estate was enforced in an attempt to control and assess the situation. The ban is still in force. We have reached the situation already today where the majority of timber is being sourced from farms. This can present certain opportunities to farmers, to have access to an additional income from their farms. However, there are certain concerns with this situation as farmers did not originally plant or retain the trees on farm with the market in mind.

These concerns range from the following:

Practical: trees planted on sloping unproductive land, that it is difficult to access; little if any silviculture management, poor conversion and low recovery rates.

Organisational: the supply has changed from forest blocks to being scattered over many small farms, (some businesses are able to adapt, some are not); farmers are not organised for the market, are unaware of its pricing and demand, and have little negotiating ability if they function as individuals selling 3 -5 stems at a time. Farmers are not aware of the value of their trees, and are selling at very low prices. The market system is also not organized to receive produce from farms.

Environmental: initially when timber sourcing from farms started in earnest (1999), the agricultural department was actually encouraging the felling of Grevillea robusta, the tree most commonly used for shading coffee trees around Mount Kenya. The department indicated, that in their view, there were too many trees on farm; such that a micro-climate had been created favouring an environment for fungal attacks on coffee. However, due to external influences on both the supply (low coffee prices, and little alternative income sources for farmers) and demand (the logging ban) the pace of clearing has accelerated to such an extent, that there are concerns as to environmental degradation and eventual increases in poverty in this previously high potential agricultural area.

Table 1: Accessible sustainable wood supply, Current trends (`000 m3)








Indigenous forests

Woodlands & bushland

Farmlands & settlements

FD forest plantations
































Table 2: Accessible sustainable wood supply, Current trends (`000 m3)








Wood demand
Industrial wood
Poles and posts
Total wood demand

Accessible sustainable supply

Indigenous forests
Woodlands and bushlands
Farmlands and settlements
Forest plantation
Total sustainable wood supply

Non-sustainable wood supply

Fuelwood substitutes

Total wood supply






































The study area

The study area is dominated by Mount Kenya, with a contiguous range of agroecological zones from lower semi arid midland livestock and millet zone, with average annual temperatures from 21 -24 C to tropical alpine and glacier zones. The study area focuses in the main coffee zone on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, but also extends slightly up slope into the tea zone, and slightly down to the marginal coffee zones to the limits of where woody materials are sourced for the market. The coffee zone, is a semi humid zone with bimodal rainfall and averages of between 950mm and 1200mm per year. The mean temperatures of 18 - 21 C and altitudes range from 1,280 - 1,340 metres above sea level, and the terrain is moderately sloping. The soil is deep nitisol of medium fertility.

The land is held in private family farms, average farm title is 3.4 hectares and the average household's portion of the title is 1.7 hectares, or 4.2 acres (Tyndall, 1996). The majority tribe is the Ki-meru. Coffee has been the main cash crop in the past. With the slump in the price of coffee, new enterprises such as the contractual growing of green beans for the export market to UK are being welcomed by farmers. The farms are mixed cropping with maize, beans, bananas, dairy cows and different tiers of plants and trees providing fruits (avocados, mangoes), nuts (macadamia), medicines , shade etc. It is not uncommon to find 19 different tree species on one farm. In a survey conducted earlier this year by Njuguna, Van Oijen and Holding (and for which the data is still being analysed) approximately 200 different tree species were identified on farm. The dominant timber species on farm are currently: Vitex keniensis (Meru Oak); Cordia africana, Newtonia buchananii and Grevillea robusta. Species found in gazetted government plantations on the slopes of Mount Kenya are Cupressus lusitanica, Pinus patula, Vitex keniensis and Eucalyptus grandis/saligna. Mount Kenya forest is categorised as tropical montane forest and its dominant species are Juniperus procera (Cedar); Prunus africana, Hagenia abyssinica; Podocarpus falcatus (P. gracilior); Podocarpus latifolius (P. milanjianus) and Ocotea usambarensis (Camphor) (ICRAF, 1992). Camphor and Cedar being the species principally extracted for timber.

Market chains for timber from farms.

The Meru timber marketing programme commissioned an initial survey into the marketing chain for Grevillea robusta from farms. The survey documented the following chains (Opanga, 2000):

Figure 1: Schematic view of Grevillea market structure & distribution channels

The first two channels are those that supply the mobile sawmillers, the second two channels are those that supply the established or (fixed) sawmills. In the first two channels primary processing is done by the mobile sawbenches on site. In the second two channels the sawmillers transport whole logs to the sawmills in town for processing. The marketing chains documented by Opanga (2000), indicate the emerging complexity in the supply network for the timber industry, and contrast sharply with the system of sawmill licensing and block felling that existed previously.

Timber business census

In June this year a timber business census was conducted:

  • The timber business census had two objectives:
  • to develop the sample frame for more detailed market chain analysis; and
  • to obtain preliminary information on the structure of the market.

The census recorded businesses on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, from Ena in N. Embu District to Isiolo, on the edge of the northern semi-arid zone of Kenya. Some towns near the forest boundary (e.g Chuka, Chogoria) have grown with the timber industry, others are market centres where furniture businesses have located. Several forays were made into the agricultural zones on both sides of the road, but no substantive businesses were located. Large sawmills on the edge of the forest have closed. This section summarises some of the findings of the business census.

The census identified, and recorded the principle characteristics of 252 businesses, 184 of these were interviewed. All these businesses no matter from where they were previously sourcing (forest, plantations or farms) were now sourcing from farms. The census identified the type and size of businesses, the species utilised, stock, customers and trends in sourcing and demand. The final question invited business owners to suggest what species they would recommend farmers to plant for future supply of the timber market.

The category of businesses surveyed were sawmill; timber yards; furniture shops; joinery/roofing contractors; piece work, machine shops, firewood and charcoal sellers. Please refer table 3. However most enterprises were conducting two or more activities and the full range of activities is also captured in the second level of Table 3. We also found that due to the mobility of fuelwood sellers, and the largely hidden nature of the charcoal business that we did not obtain a full accounting of those businesses in this round of the survey work. Therefore these categories and the category "other" are not included in the subsequent discussions.

The census results showed that the businesses fell roughly into three categories, those that used to source from the forest, those that used to source from plantations and those that used to source from farms. The census results showed that each group of businesses is coping and strategizing differently with regard to the forest and plantation logging ban. Table 4 summaries the results from the semi-structured interviews, that describe how these three different groups of businesses are in transition. Note a change in species being utilised by the business indicates a change in location and a change in network of actors and methods in sourcing timber. The 43 businesses that previously sourced from the plantations have found it most difficult to adjust to the changed circumstances. In addition to those surveyed, many plantation based businesses had already closed. It was observed, that most of these businesses had heavy investments in machinery and relied on regular and large volumes of softwood timber from the plantations destined for the construction industry. It would appear that they are currently unable to obtain adequate and regular supply of farm sourced timber to maintain machinery and workers. Other businesses, with lower machinery investment such as the 16 medium and 14 smaller timber yards interviewed are decentralizing their operations nearer to the source of supply on farms.

Table 3: Number of activities per business categories1

Principal activity by business category


Business type


Piece work

Timber yard

Furniture shop


Furniture showroom

Machine shop



Principal activity











Summary of all activities conducted by wood product businesses. Each business has a principal activity, as well as supplementary related activities

All business










Table 4: Previous sourcing, species demanded and used, sourcing network and main products.

4a: Previously sourcing from forest (85 businesses censused)


Prior to logging ban (1999)


Species demanded by customers

Ocotea usambarensis

Ocotea usambarensis, Vitex keniensis, Cordia africana, Grevillea robusta

Species used by the businesses

Ocotea usambarensis

Ocotea usambarensis


Network of actors

Licenced sawmillers, timber yards

Forest timber: Illegal forest felling, night tractor logging and brokers.
Farm timber: mobile benches, transporters, brokers, farmers,

Main product



4b: Previously sourcing from plantations (43 businesses censused2)


Prior to logging ban (1999)


Species demanded by customers

Cupressus lusitanica, Pinus patula and Ocotea usambarensis

Cupressus lusitanica, Ocotea usambarensis

Species used by the businesses

Cupressus lusitanica, Pinus patula, Cordia africana and Ocotea usambarensis.

Grevillea robusta, Newtonia buchanii and Cordia africana

Network of actors

Licenced sawmillers, timber yards

Farm timber: mobile benches, transporters, brokers, farmers.

Main product

Construction industry

Construction industry

4c: Businesses previously sourcing from farms (41 businesses censused)


Prior to logging ban (1999)


Species demanded by customers

Cordia africana, Grevillea robusta

Cordia africana, Cupressus lusitaica, Grevillea robusta

Species used by the businesses

Grevillea robusta, V.keniensis, Cordia africana and Cupressus lusitanica

Cordia africana, Grevillea robusta

Network of actors

Mobile benches, brokers and farmers

mobile benches, transporters, brokers, farmers.

Main product

Furniture and local construction industry

Furniture and local construction industry

An additional 67 businesses in the towns of Meru, Igoji and Nkubu have had multiple sourcing strategies for a period of time, and a range of soft and hardwood products for the construction and furniture industries depending on customer demand and orders. Those businesses were consequently less easily categorised. Detailed market chain analysis studies (sampling from the various categories, location and sourcing strategies of businesses recorded in the census) have started with documenting in more detail these more complex multi-sourcing businesses.

It can be observed that those businesses sourcing from the forest, with marketing channels linking them to customers demanding hardwood species are having the most difficult time in sourcing materials of adequate quality. Much of the raw material supply is currently illegally sourced from the forest. Businesses previously sourcing from plantations, and supplying the construction industry are relying heavily on Grevillea robusta from farms. However, this is not a species or quality with which their customers are familiar. Businesses sourcing from farms continue to do so, but are experiencing increasing competition in accessing supplies. As the research progresses indicative data from the timber business census will be verified quantitatively by species, volumes and prices of timber traded, in a series of market chain studies of the timber sub-sector.

Sustainable production of timber from farms.

The semi-structured interviews also included a session when the business owner or foreman was asked if farmers were to supply the timber industry in the future, what species should they consider planting and why. A variety of responses were recorded, and the dominant trend was that farmers should plant:

Ocotea usambarensis, Cordia africana, Vitex keniensis for furniture work. Grevillea robusta and Cupressus lusitanica for construction.

From a survey of 58 group, individual and private nurseries, most commonly found species in Meru district nurseries are Dovyalis kaffra (hedging species), Grevillea robusta; Calliandra calothyrsus, Cupressus lusitanica, Azadirachta indica (neem) and Mangifera indica and Passiflora edulis. Hardwood timber species for furniture making only appeared in a few nurseries: Vitex keniensis (4 nurseries) , Eucalytus saligna (5 nurseries). All other species were either hedging, fast growing exotic softwoods or fruit trees (Muriuki and Jaenicke, 2001). However, many of the hardwood timber species on farm (Prunus africana, Cordia africana, Vitex keniensis) regenerate naturally and are transplanted within the farm. So nurseries alone are not an adequate indicator of future supply of timber on farm. Further research is required on the rate of natural regeneration of key timber species on farm and the level of preservation and utilization of that regeneration. The survey mentioned earlier (Njuguna, Van Oijen and Holding), documenting volumes and species of timber on farm, indicated that despite the predominance of Grevillea robusta, there is a vast diversity of species that continues on farm in the coffee zone8. Previous extension efforts around eastern Mount Kenya have, in accordance with the approaches at that time, tended to focus on number of trees planted on farm, with little regard to use, function or on farm diversity. Future extension efforts would be wise to recognise and build on this existing diversity to provide farmers with a "basket of options" for the long term economic and environmental sustainability of farm households and their land (Scherr, 1995). Though the timber businesses are not necessarily aware of the growing conditions of specific species (e.g. Ocotea usambarensis, is a forest species that will not grow in open farm conditions), they are recommending a combination of fast growing exotics, and slower growing hardwoods. The extension and research activities would be wise to take note of this indication that the market is seeking both hard and softwoods from farms. Activities focused on enriching diversity and sustainable production on farm would also be wise to balance germplasm supply from nurseries (which tends to be exotic softwoods, hedging and fruits), and germplasm availability from enhancing the protection and utilisation of natural regeneration on farm (which tend to be indigenous hardwoods).

Challenges to Extension.

In the course of the design and implementation of the Meru Timber Marketing Programme, several stakeholders meeting have been held. This section draws in particular on the proceedings of the stakeholder meetings held in Meru in July 1999 (Akinga 1999); and in Nairobi in June 2001 (Holding & Carsan, 2001)

In the first meeting (Akinga, 1999) farmers and sawmillers identified a series of problems and solutions with regard to farmers entering the market for timber. Farmers said they lacked valuation techniques; lack of knowledge of tree management; lack of knowledge of the market; poor prices received; siting of trees in places that are difficult to harvest (e.g near a house); sometimes there are conflicts with family or neighbours in felling trees; permits required from the administration before trees can be felled and transported; and transportation. Sawmillers cited accessibility; red tape from the administration; poor quality of logs; no information on quantity or location of timber; economic distance to farms; presence of nails and other obstacles in the logs leading to damage of machinery; as their main problems.

As solutions the farmers requested that the forest department provide information on pricing and techniques of valuation and tree management; that the farmers themselves form some kind of organisation to facilitate market linkages. The sawmillers suggested that farmers should clear access paths; that farmers are provided advice on management for improved quality; need for improved farm planning; farmers to group themselves around one collection point.

The stakeholders meeting in June 2001 (Holding & Carsan, 2001) identified some additional emerging issues. Even if farmers are provided with the silvicultural advice for quality and optimum harvesting sizes, according to the farmers prevailing strategy of trees as savings, trees are likely to be harvested when the farmer requires cash, and not when the tree will obtain the best return in the market. Harvesting of trees accelerate in times of need, such as the current prolonged downturn in coffee prices. There is thus a disparity between farmer decision making based on poverty and decision making based on optimal silvicultural decision that are possible when a household is financially stable.

In addition, the AIDs pandemic has hit Meru communities very hard. Meru Central District started recording HIV/AIDs related deaths in 1999. Of a total population of 500,000 of which 186,085 are the 20-49 age group, the number of deaths reported from Aids in 2000 was 218, more than double the 88 recorded the previous year. There are 940 adults recorded as being HIV positive in the District, but as the statistics only record those who have visited hospitals this is likely to be an under recording (Ministry of Health Statistics, Meru Central District). The villages in which we are working have the highest number of HIV positive cases recorded in the district. Though, we have not collected specific data to this effect, it is certain that the costs of healthcare, and loss of adult labour in households is making an already precarious financial situation, even worse.

The second issue of concern was a reduction in tree cover on farms. There is currently no record of the number of mobile sawmills currently active in the region, but it is estimated in the hundreds. Though not effectively enforced, there was a system in place of licensing sawmills harvesting from the forest estate, so approximate records of volumes harvested were possible. There is currently no mechanism to monitor the activities of mobile sawmills, and no record of the volumes of timber being harvested from farms.

The key skills required by the extension service(s), or whichever agency(ies) are facilitating farmers linkages to the industry, were therefore identified as:

  • Market assessment – skills in analysing the opportunities and constraints of various market options available to farmers in the technical, social, economic aspects of market analysis and the sustainability of the resource;
  • Mensuration and valuation techniques; and
  • Formation of farmers groups and joint ventures linking with industry.

No one agency currently serving farmers has this range of skills. If timber sourcing from farm is to be a viable source of supply for the industry, and viable addition to the farmers basket of livelihood options, innovative mechanisms that are a break from conventional extension, such as joint venture schemes with business and industry (Curtis & Race, 1998; Desmond & Race 2000), are required. To facilitate this transition greater cooperation between the arms of government responsible for extension with farmers (agriculture departments), and those responsible for the forest estate (forest departments) will be necessary. Streamlining of agricultural, forest and environment policies with legislation applying to tree growing on farms would be an important first step in this direction.


A programme such as the Meru Timber Marketing Programme that addresses research, advocacy and extension has many stakeholders, too numerous to mention here. This paper describes the work in progress within the research component of the programme and the authors wish to acknowledge the contribution of Peter Mungai; Michael Kinyanjui and Sammy Carson as field assistants. Collaborators within the extension component who are crucial in this endeavour, and who have a strong role in keeping the research on its toes and relevant to farmers are the Provincial and District offices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; the Provincial and District offices of the Forest department, of the Ministry of Natural Resources; of respectively: Eastern Province and Meru Central District, Kenya. In particular we would like to acknowledge Mary Mwaura, Daphne Muchai and her Divisional team for frank and open interactions. The authors would like to thank Dr. Steve Franzel, Senior Economist at ICRAF for his extensive comments to earlier drafts of this paper.

The authors wish to acknowledge the support of Forest Action Network in funding the research and development programme in Meru; and to DFID, through their support to the Tree Domestication Programme at ICRAF for facilitating the presentation of this paper to this IUFRO conference.


1. Akinga, W. 1999 Timber marketing - Activity planning seminar. July 26th - 27th 1999 (KEFRI/ICRAF/MoARD/FD)

2. Chambers, R. and Leach, M. 1989 Trees as savings and security for the rural poor. World Development, 17, (3) 329-42

3. Curtis, A. and Race, Digby 1998 Links between Farm Forestry and the Wood Processing Industry. Lessons from the Green Triangle, Tasmania and Western Australia. A report of the rural industries research and development corporation no 98/41 RIRDC Project No UCS-10A

4. Desmond, Helen and Race, Digby 2000 Global survey and analytical framework for forestry out-grower arrangements. Final report. (Department of Forestry – Australian National University, Canberra) FAO, Rome June 2000

5. Gitonga, Michael 2001. Personal communication, timber farmer, Ntakira location, Meru Central District.

6. Holding C. and Carsan S. 2001 Proceedings of the second Meru Timber Marketing Stakeholders workshop. An activity of the Meru Timber Marketing Programme (FAN/MoARD/ICRAF), Nairobi.

7. ICRAF 1992. A selection of useful Trees and Shrubs for Kenya. Notes on their identification, propagation and management for use by agricultural and pastoral communities. ICRAF. Nairobi

8. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 1994 Kenya Forestry Master Plan Development Programmes Nairobi.

9. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 1994 Kenya Forestry Master Plan Executive Summary. Nairobi

10. Ministry of Health. (2000). STI/HIV/AIDS Progressive report from 1993 to 2000. Meru Central District

11. Muriuki, J., and Jaenicke H., 2001 Tree nurseries under individual and group management. A case study from Meru District, Kenya. Propagation systems Project, Tree Domestication programme, ICRAF, Nairobi ( in press)

12. Njuguna, P., Holding C., and Munyasya C., 2000 On farm woody biomass surveys (1993 and 1998): a case study from Nakuru and Nyandarua Districts in Kenya. In Temu A.B. (eds) Off-forest tree resources of Africa. A proceedings of a workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania, 1999. African Academy of Sciences.

13. Njuguna, P., Mbegera M., Mbithi, D., 1999 Reconnaissance survey of forest blocks in the West and East of the Rift Valley. Permanent Presidential Commission on Soil Conservation and Afforestation (PPCSCA) , Government of Kenya.

14. Opanga P. 2000 Emerging markets in grevillea robusta. Farm timber in Igoki and Ntakira locations of Meru Central District. Report commissioned by the Meru Timber Marketing Project (MoARD/FAN/ICRAF).

15. Scherr, Sara J. 1997 Meeting household needs: farmer tree-growing strategies in Western Kenya. In Arnold, J.E. and Dewees, P.A. 1997. Farms, Trees and Farmers Earthscan, London

16. Tyndall, B. 1996 The socioeconomics of Grevillea robusta within the coffee land-use system of Kenya. Agroforestry Research Networks for Africa (AFRENA) Report no 109.

17. Warner, Katherine 1997 Patterns of tree growing by farmers in Eastern Africa in Arnold, J.E. and Dewees, P.A. 1997. Farms, Trees and Farmers Earthscan, London

18. Wass, P. 1995 Kenya's Indigenous Forests. Status, Management and Conservation IUCN Forest Conservation Programme / ODA. IUCN Gland, Switzerland.

19. White S. 1997 Cypress and pine industrial roundwood in Kenya. Analysis of supply and demand. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resource - Forestry Department P.O. Box 30513 Nairobi.

1 In this table there is no direct relation between the first and second rows.

2 Many other businesses that previously sourced timber from plantations were already closed, and we were unable to obtain any reliable information.

Ocotea usambarensis : Indigenous hardwood - forest.

Cordia africana: Indigenous hardwood - farms

Vitex keniensis: indigenous hardwood - forest and farms

Grevillea robusta: introduced species - farms. High popularity as agroforestry species due to compatibility with crops e.g. coffee.

Cupressus lusitanica: introduced early 1900s for plantation production, also grown by farmers until cypress aphid attack in early 1990s. Farmers now less willing to plant.

8 Research on tree species diversity and sustainability of biological diversity on farm has been conducted by Ard Lengkeek of tree Domestication Programme, ICRAF for the past three years, in the same localities as the research described in this paper. Results from Lengkeek, will be relevant and complementary to the on going timber marketing research.

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